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Introduction

The 2-FUN project has achieved something rather unique; a collection of models for the transport of contaminants in the environment, the uptake of biota to the exposure of the human body, which can be combined to conduct a full chain risk assessment starting with the contamination of a region and ending with the risk to people living there.

The 2-FUN multi-media modelling tool allows the user to assemble a model for a specific scenario, select contaminants, entering input data and parameter values and finally to run deterministic (best estimate) or probabilistic (Monte Carlo) simulations. After a simulation is complete, charts and tables can be created for the simulation outputs. When running probabilistic simulations, the user can also investigate the impact of uncertain parameters on the simulation outputs (sensitivity analysis). Finally a report can be generated that includes all information - model equations, input data, parameter values to simulation results.

This tool is based on the risk assessment software Ecolego Player. Ecolego Player is a free software for Ecolego, the simulation modelling tool with which the models are implemented. This is why this document sometimes refer to the manual of Ecolego Player.

The models

Included with the software is a library of models. For each model inputs and outputs are defined, so that the model can be connected to other models.

The models are divided into two main categories; models for metallic substances and models for organic substances. It is possible to conduct risk assessments with both metallic and organic substances, but this requires that you add two model components for each part of the landscape.

The models are further grouped into four sub-categories:

  • Environment - Model components for simulating the transport of contaminants in the environment.

  • Biota - Model components for uptake of contaminants from the environment by plants and animals.

  • Body - Model components for exposure to the human body from the environment (air and drinking water) as well as biota (ingestion).

  • Hazard - Dose response models that use concentrations in different human organs to calculate risk of illness.

Environment

Three models are included.

  • Atmoshpere - Models the atmosphere covering the landscape. The concentration of contaminants in air are used as an input (inhalation) for the body model. See Atmosphere Model.

  • Freshwater - Models a region with freshwater - a lake or a river. You can chain several freshwater models if you want to increase the resolution of the landscape. The concentration in freshwater can be used as an input to the soil model (as irrigation), as well as for drinking water for animals. See Freshwater Model.

  • Soil - Models the turnover of contaminants in the soil for one or more plants. It also models the ground water, which can be used as an input for the body model. The concentration in soil is used by the plant models. See Soil Model.

Biota

These models calculate the concentration in foodstuffs. You select models that reflect the diet of the investigated population. Each model has a parameter “ingestion rate” where you define how much (kg/day) a person in the investigated region consumes of this particular food.

  • Cow - Models the exposure to cows from air, drinking water and concentration in grass. The concentration in beef meat and milk are used as inputs for the body model. See Cow Model.
  • Fish - A model for fish in the freshwater. The concentration in fish is used as an input to the body model. See Fish Model.
  • Fruit - A model for fruits. The concentration in the fruit is used as an input for the body model. See Fruit Model.
  • Grain - Models the uptake of contaminants to grains such as wheat and rye. The concentration in the plant is used as an input for the body model. See Grain Model.
  • Grass - A model for forage for cows. The concentration in grass is used as an input for the cow model. See Grass Model.
  • Leaf - Models the uptake of contaminants to leafy vegetables such as cabbage and lettuce. The concentration in the vegetable is used as an input for the body model. See Leaf Model.
  • Potato - Models the uptake of contaminants to potatoes from soil. The concentration in potatoes are used as an input (ingestion) for the body model. See Potato Model.
  • Root - Models the uptake of contaminants to root vegetables such as carrots and beets. The concentration in the vegetable are used as an input (ingestion) for the body model. See Root Model.

Body

The effect of contaminants on the body is very specific to the substance which makes the development of a generic model difficult. The 2-FUN software has PBPK (Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic) models for the following substances:

  • Lead - See Body Model (Lead).

  • Arsenic - Arsenic (As III) as well as the metabolites As V, MMA III, MMA V, DMA III and DMA V. See Body Model (Arsenic).

  • BTEX - Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylene as well as the metabolites Benzene oxide, Phenol and Hydroquinone. See Body Model (BTEX)?.

  • B(a)P - See Body Model (B(a)P)?.

  • Atrazine - This model can be combined with the PBPK model for Arsenic. See Body Model (Atrazine).

Hazard

For some substances there are dose response models that, given concentrations of contaminants in different organs, calculate the risk of illness.

  • Arsenic - Given concentration of Arsenic and metabolites in lung, kidney, skin and liver, calculates the hazard quotients for each organ. See Dose-response Model (Arsenic).

Making an assessment using the 2-FUN Player

The user interface of the software will guide you through the steps needed:

Context Page
Create a new project. Describe the focus of the assessment. Select contaminants from the list of available substances or add new substances if they are missing in the list.

Model Page
Create the model. Depending on the scenario - do you want to model transport of contaminants in the environement or begin with the exposure of humans - you select models from the built-in library. The software will help you, as far as possible, to connect the models.

Time Series Page
Enter time dependent input data. Each model may contain references to input data that you must enter, such as precipitation, temperature or contamination rates.

Parameters Page
Enter parameter values. For uncertain parameters you can enter probability density functions (PDFs).

Simulation Page
Run a simulation.

Result Charts Page
Create charts for the simulation outputs.

Result Charts Page
Create tables for the simulation outputs.

Report Page
Create a report detailing the model, inputs and simulation results.